Fast facts about Canada

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A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border. Its paramount political problem continues to be the relationship of the province of Quebec, with its French-speaking residents and unique culture, to the remainder of the country. Location:Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US Geographic coordinates:60 00 N, 95 00 W;
Area:total: 9,984,670 sq km;land: 9,093,507 sq km; water: 891,163 sq km
Area - comparative:10 times larger than the US;
Land boundaries:total: 8,893 km
border countries: US 8,893 km;Coastline:202,080 km
Climate:varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north
Terrain:mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m;highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m
Natural resources:iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower Land use: arable land: 4.94%;permanent crops: 0.02%;other: 95.04% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:7,200 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains
Environment - current issues:
Air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation Geography - note:second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 85% of the population is concentrated within 300 km of the US border
Population: 35.16 million (2013)
Related statistics
Life expectancy: 81.24 years (2012)
Population growth rate: 1.2% annual change (2013)
Birth rate:10.28 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate:7.61 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:6.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female;under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female;15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
Infant mortality rate:total: 4.88 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 5.36 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.83 years
male: 76.44 years
female: 83.38 years
Total fertility rate:
1.61 children born/woman
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.3% (2001 est.)
noun: Canadian(s) adjective: Canadian
Ethnic groups:
British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%, Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed background 26%
Religions:Roman Catholic 46%, Protestant 36%, other 18%(note: based on the 1991 census)

Languages:English 59.3% (official), French 23.2% (official), other 17.5% Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97% (1986 est.)

Government:confederation with parliamentary democracy Capital:Ottawa
Administrative divisions:
10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*
Independence:1 July 1867 (from UK)
National holiday:Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution:17 April 1982 (Constitution Act); originally, the machinery of the government was set up in the British North America Act of 1867; charter of rights and unwritten customs Legal system:based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Adrienne CLARKSON (since 7 October 1999) elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Commons is automatically designated prime minister by the governor general head of government: Prime Minister Paul MARTIN (since 12 December 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Anne MCLELLAN (since 12 December 2003) cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister from among the members of his own party sitting in Parliament.
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (members appointed by the governor general with the advice of the prime minister and serve until reaching 75 years of age; its normal limit is 105 senators) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (301 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to serve for up to five-year terms) elections: House of Commons - last held 27 November 2000 (next to be held by 2005)
International organization participation:
Economy - overview:
As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US. As a result of the close cross-border relationship, the economic sluggishness in the United States in 2001-02 had a negative impact on the Canadian economy. Real growth averaged nearly 3% during 1993-2000, but declined in 2001, with moderate recovery in 2002. Unemployment is up, with contraction in the manufacturing and natural resource sectors. Nevertheless, given its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant Canada enjoys solid economic prospects. Two shadows loom, the first being the continuing constitutional impasse between English- and French-speaking areas, which has been raising the specter of a split in the federation. Another long-term concern is the flow south to the US of professionals lured by higher pay, lower taxes, and the immense high-tech infrastructure. A key strength in the economy is the substantial trade surplus.
GDP per capita: 51,958.38 USD(2013)
Gross domestic product: 1.827 trillion USD(2013)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 2.3% industry: 26.5%
services: 71.2% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 23.8% (1994)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 31.5 (1994)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):2.2% (2002 est.)
Labor force: 16.4 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: services 74%, manufacturing 15%, construction 5%, agriculture 3%, other 3% (2000)
Unemployment rate: 6.1% (2013 est.)
transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products; wood and paper products; fish products, petroleum and natural gas Industrial production growth rate: 2.2%
Electricity - production:566.3 billion kWh
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 28%
hydro: 57.9%
other: 1.3%
nuclear: 12.9%
Electricity - consumption: 504.4 billion kWh
Electricity - exports: 38.4 billion kWh
Electricity - imports: 16.11 billion kWh
Oil - production: 2.738 million bbl/day
Oil - consumption:1.703 million bbl/day
Oil - exports: 2.008 million bbl/day
Oil - imports: 1.145 million bbl/day
Oil - proved reserves: 5.112 billion bbl (37257)
Natural gas - production: 186.8 billion cu m
Natural gas - exports: 109 billion cu m
Natural gas - imports: 4.46 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 1.691 trillion cu m (37257)
Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish
Exports: $260.5 billion f.o.b.
Exports - commodities: motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum
Exports - partners: US 87.7%, Japan 2%, UK 1.1%
Imports: $229 billion f.o.b.
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods
Imports - partners: US 62.6%, China 4.6%, Japan 4.4%
Debt - external: $1.9 billion & grawing Economic aid - donor: ODA, $1.3 billion Currency: Canadian dollar (CAD) Currency code:CAD Exchange rates: Canadian dollars per US dollar - 1.17 (2014),1.57 (2002), 1.48 (1998)
Fiscal year:1 April - 31 March
Communications: Telephones - main lines in use: 20,802,900
Telephones - mobile cellular: 8,751,300 (1997) & growing Telephone system: general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology
domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations
international: 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 535, FM 53, shortwave 6
Television broadcast stations: 80 (plus many repeaters)
Internet country
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 760 (2000 est.)
Internet users: 25.84 million
Transportation: Railways: total: 49,422 km
standard gauge: 49,422 km 1.435-m gauge (129 km electrified)
Highways: total: 1.408 million km
paved: 497,306 km (including 16,900 km of expressways)
unpaved: 911,494 km
Waterways: 3,000 km (including Saint Lawrence Seaway)
Pipelines: crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km
Ports and harbors: Becancour (Quebec), Churchill, Halifax, Hamilton, Montreal, New Westminster, Prince Rupert, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick), St. John's (Newfoundland), Sept Isles, Sydney, Trois-Rivieres, Thunder Bay, Toronto, Vancouver, Windsor Merchant marine:
total: 122 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,840,272 GRT/2,740,864 DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 64, cargo 11, chemical tanker 6, combination bulk 2, combination ore/oil 1, container 1, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 18, railcar carrier 2, roll on/roll off 9, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 1 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Germany 3, Monaco 16, United Kingdom 1, United States 1 (2002 est.)
Airports: 1,389
Airports - with paved runways: total: 507 over 3,047 m: 18 2,438 to 3,047 m: 15 914 to 1,523 m: 245 under 914 m: 80 (2002) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 149
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 882 1,524 to 2,437 m: 73 914 to 1,523 m: 363 under 914 m: 446
Heliports: 12
Military branches:
Canadian Armed Forces (comprising Land Forces Command, Maritime Command, Air Command, Communications Command, Training Command)
Military manpower - military age: 16 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 8,391,120 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 7,158,016 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 216,488 (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $7.861 billion (FY01/02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.1% (FY01/02)
Transnational Issues: Disputes - international:
managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; uncontested dispute with Denmark over Hans Island sovereignty in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; transit point for heroin and cocaine entering the US market; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering because of its mature financial services sector

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